What are the Functions of Management

Functions of Management

Management has been defined in the form of a process. Under the management organizing, staffing, directing and controlling), many activities inter-related to each other are included These activities are known as functions or elements of management.

(1) Planning:

It refers to thinking before hand. In other words, planning is the determination of a future course of action to achieve a desired result Under planning it is ascertained that what should be done, how it should be done and who should do it before the commencement of a job all these points are not contemplated than the objective of a business cannot be achieved. a Planning is a long process, for the consummation of which following steps are taken:

(i) Setting objectives

(ii) Developing premises

(iii) Identifying alternative courses of action

(iv) Evaluating alternative courses

(v) Selecting an alternative

(vi) Implementing the plan

(vii) Follow up action fragrantly

(2) Organizing:

It refers to harmonious adjustment of various parts to achieve common objectives. In order to make the first function of management (i.e., planning) functional, a structure of roles needs to be famed and sustained. The process of creating this structure of roles is known as organizing. Planning is just to put some idea in writing, but to convert that idea into reality, a group of people is needed. Further to streamline the activities of this group of people, organizing is required. Under this, the whole project is divided into various small jobs, to assign these jobs to designated posts (which will clarify that a particular job will be performed at which post), to unite various jobs into one department, to clarify the rights and duties of employees to be appointed at various posts, and to define relationship among various posts (employees).

Following steps are taken to culminate the organizing function of management:

(i) Identification and Division of Work

(ii) Departmentalization

(iii) Assignment of Duties

(iv) Establishing Reporting Relations

(3) Staffing:

It refers to filling and keeping filled the post with people. In planning, ideas are given a written shape, on the other hand organizing, with the objective of converting these ideas into reality, prepares a structure of various posts. After organizing comes staffing which deploys people on these posts so that jobs can be performed. In view of the fact that the success of an organization is commensurate to how adroitly every employee performs his job, the importance of staffing function increases even more. Following steps are taken to culminate the staffing function of management:

(i) Estimating the manpower requirements

(ii) Recruitment

(iii) Selection

(iv) Placement and Orientation

(v) Training and Development

(4) Directing: It refers to instructing, guiding, communicating and inspiring people in the organization.

Under directing following four activities are included:

(i) Supervision

(ii) Communication

(iii) Leadership

(iv) Motivation

Brief description of these four activities is as follows:

(i) Supervision:

It refers to monitor the progress of routine work of one’s subordinates and guiding them properly. Supervision is an important element of the directing function of management Supervision has an important feature that face to face contact between supervisor and his subordinate is a must.

(ii) Communication:

It refers to an art of transferring facts, ideas, feeling, etc. from one person to another and making him understand them. A manager has to continuously tell his subordinates about what to do, how to do, and when to do various things. Also, it is very essential to know their reactions. To do all this it becomes essential to develop effective telecommunication facilities. Communication by developing mutual understanding inculcates a sense of cooperation which builds an environment of coordination in the organization:

(ii) Leadership:

It refers to influence others in such a manner to do work what the leader wants them to do. Leadership plays an important role in directing. Only through this quality, a manager can inculcate trust and zeal among his subordinates.

(iv) Motivation:

It refers to that process which excites people to work for attainment of desired objective. Among the various factors of production, it is only the human factor which is dynamic and provides mobility to other physical resources. If human resource goes static then other resources automatically turn immobile. Thus, it becomes essential to motivate human resource to keep them dynamic, aware and eager to perform their duty. Both monetary and non-monetary incentives are given to employees for motivation.

(5) Controlling:

It refers to bring the actual results closer to the desired results. Under this, the manager monitors whether the jobs are being performed in accordance to the set plans or not. She also checks whether the quality and quantity of job performed is in alignment to the pre-determined standards/parameters or not. Deviations are then checked for by matching actual performance with pre-determined standards. After this corrective action is taken for negative deviations so that the difference between actual result and desired results can be minimized. Thus, with the enforcement of controlling process all the bottlenecks coming in the way of work-progress are removed and efforts of al the people start approaching in the desired direction.

In the form of conclusion, controlling process has five main steps:

(i) Setting performance standards

(ii) Comparison of actual performance with standards

(iii) Measurement of actual performance

(iv) Analyzing deviations

(v) Taking corrective action

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